美国疾病控制与预防中心《减盐行动》电子报第86期
发布日期:2016年04月22日 阅读次数:
 
 

《减盐资讯》汇总自上一期起最新的与钠摄入和减盐相关的新闻文章(或标题),大约每两周发布一次。内容包括:行业资讯、政府资讯、各州/地方资讯、国际资讯、新的调查和研究成果等等。目的是为了让公众对与钠相关的新闻话题有一个快速了解。
 
2016213- 226
 
/地方新闻
纽约市法院判决裁定本市可要求标注高钠警告
俗话说:“信息就是力量。”近期,纽约州高等法院判决裁定,要求全国超过15地的餐厅标注高钠食品警告。全国餐饮协会(National Restaurant Association)将寻求初步禁令,以暂停该法令,同时表示,该法院委员会的决定未遵循立法方针,也未听取所涉及到的企业的意见,法院在制定该法令时既武断又多变,管理办法并未针对纽约市的所有餐厅,而是孤立了连锁餐厅,这样的做法可能对连锁餐厅造成“无法挽回的损害”。纽约市卫生署总顾问托马斯•梅里尔(Thomas Merrill)将高钠标识法令与纽约市前任市长迈克尔•R•布卢姆伯格(Michael R. Bloomberg)提出的含糖饮品禁令进行了对比,他指出:“餐厅可以遵守,也可以不遵守该法令。”但纽约市多家连锁餐厅,如赛百味、星期五餐厅、苹果蜂和帝王娱乐集团,均已开始对高钠菜品进行了标注。——《纽约时报》(New York Times)
 
国际新闻
美国能从英国的大量钠实验中学到什么
2003年,在英国政府的委托下,研究人员就食盐问题进行了研究并报告称,英国市民的食盐摄入量较高,由此导致心血管疾病和中风,但仅建议高血压人群个人降低盐摄入量是无法彻底解决问题的。英国食品标准局(United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency )对减盐计划做出了两个回应:首先是提高公众的减盐意识,其次则是与加工食品产业合作,以减少其产品中的含盐量。2003年,英国人的食盐摄入量为平均每天9.5克;到了2011年,该摄入量降低了15%,降至每天8.1克。由于血压降低,中风和心脏病死亡率分别降低42%和40%。相比之下,据美国疾病预防控制中心统计,美国居民的中风和心脏病死亡率分别降低了31%和34%。虽然有这些研究,仍然不足以说明这些成绩绝对与钠摄入降低有关。但是结合现有开展人群范围减盐行动的国家的数据,世界卫生组织和联合国均推荐减盐项目,以抵抗疾病。——《华盛顿邮报》(Washington Post)
 
中国人食盐摄入量超过建议值两倍
中国的酱油、加工食品和腌制菜品广受欢迎,但中国人的盐摄入量也因此超过了世界卫生组织建议量的近两倍。近期,《美国医学会杂志》(JAMA)中一项新研究提醒人们注意,中国的高血压和其它慢性疾病发病率正在不断上升。然而,这项从中国各省采集数据占全国人口46%的研究发现,中国居民从饮食中平均摄入的食盐量下降了22.2%,从2000年的日均11.8克降至2009年的日均9.2克。在研究阶段,中国居民从酱油、加工食品和腌制菜品中直接摄入的钠仅降低了12.3%,从日均6.4克降至日均5.6克。——《商业标准报》(Business Standard)
 
英国儿童餐食采用成人限盐标准存在误导性
英国的儿童套餐的含盐量高达儿童每日限盐量的75%,但包装上标注的含盐量若以成人限盐量为准,则降低了三分之二,这对英国的家长们造成了误导。英国根据成人限盐量为食品包装制定了“红绿灯标识管理系统”,用绿色、黄色和红色三个等级代表产品中的食盐、饱和脂肪以及糖的含量水平。而实际上,儿童的限盐量应该更低,也就是说,某些标注“低”盐的儿童套餐已经达到了儿童的“高”盐标准。——《星期日泰晤士报》(Sunday Times)
 
英国连锁餐厅比萨产品含盐量高于汉堡王皇堡餐
treated.com网站的一项研究称,比萨快递(PizzaExpress)是英国连锁餐厅中产品含盐量最高的餐厅,并且远远超出多家大型快餐连锁餐厅。比萨快递最咸的菜品是Napoletana比萨,其含盐量高达每份9.6克,几乎是汉堡王皇堡和普通薯条的三倍之多。意大利菜、街头小吃以及酒吧食品则是最新上榜的高盐食品。负责treated.com网站该项研究的韦恩•奥斯博恩(Wayne Osborne)呼吁各家连锁餐厅,像那些被强制公布餐食营养信息的快餐连锁餐厅一样,也公布其餐食中的营养成分。——《外出就餐杂志》(Eat Out Magazine)
 
食盐摄入量过高800万泰国人患慢性肾病
泰国公共卫生部(Thai Ministry of Public Health)近期指出,超过800万泰国居民患有慢性肾病,其中半数人还患有糖尿病和高血压。三月份,世界肾脏日前夕,泰国公共卫生部指出,泰国的慢性肾病确诊人数在东盟国家中排名第三,仅次于马来西亚和新加坡。2016年世界肾脏日活动指导委员会主席Surasak Kantachuwessiri认为人们患上肾病是因为泰国饮食中的钠含量较高,并举例称,泰国人爱吃烧烤,说明他们偏好较咸的食物。——《曼谷椰子报》(Coconuts Bangkok)
 
印度九种不为人知的含盐食品
即使在食品中少加盐,印度九种广受欢迎的高钠食品仍可能导致对心脏和其它器官的损害。印度薄饼(一种调味薄饼)和泡菜通常作为主食的佐餐,这两种食品的钠含量极高。在制作它们的过程中,要加入油和各种调料,而一勺泡菜的钠含量就相当于一天的正常摄入量。多数人以为烘烤食品属于甜食,实际上,它们的钠含量基本都很高。大部分奶酪、黄油和人造黄油也含有大量食盐。——健康网(Health Site)
 
新研究/调研成果
科学家对盐是人类杀手的说法表示反对并提出证据
虽然科技发展突飞猛进,但人们对食盐摄入量的健康标准仍意见不一,这种现状令人困惑不已。《国际流行病学期刊》(International Journal of Epidemiology)最新发表的一篇分析文章在对该话题数以百计的论文进行分析后发现,由于两派科学家根本就是在两个平行的科学领域进行研究,因此这至少在一定程度上导致双方始终无法达成共识。该分析还指出,科学家们常引用与自己的观点一致的研究。总体来看,我们所看到的那些研究论文中,有50%引用的是与自己结论相似的报告,而不是相反的。另外,如果我们只用一种评价体系来评判一篇研究论文,那么,这篇论文就很可能不符合另一评判体系。该分析文章的研究人员还写道:“我们的发现可以消除人们对现状的偏见,并在各学派之间搭建真诚沟通和互帮互助的桥梁。”——《华盛顿邮报》(Washington Post)
 
食盐摄入对绝经女性骨质健康没有影响
据《临床内分泌与代谢》(Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism期刊文章称,低盐饮食未必会对绝经女性的骨质健康产生影响。研究人员通过女性健康计划对近7万绝经女性进行了长达11年的跟踪调查并发现,食盐摄入量不是影响其骨质健康的主要因素。该文章作者之一劳拉•卡彭(Laura Carbone)称,最新的调查结果令人惊讶且说明我们需要进行大规模的预测性研究,以确定食盐摄入对女性骨质有益还是有害或者无关紧要。卡彭还称:“低钠摄入本身不太可能利于人类的骨质健康,但我们绝不同意高钠是健康的。”——《医学快讯》(Medical Xpress)
 
其它信息
口味变换神经美食学能否让人产生健康即是美味的感觉
神经美食学是一个新兴的科学领域,它解释了人的味觉受大脑支配的原理。耶鲁大学的神经生物学家戈登•谢波德(Gordon Shepherd)于十年前创造了这个术语,他的研究显示,味道是一种尚未为人熟知的复杂概念,它并不源自我们吃的食物,而源自我们在经历中产生的心理。英格兰布雷市的米其林三星餐厅——肥鸭餐厅(Fat Duck)就采用了神经美食学的原理进行烹饪。这种原理重点通过改变食物成分使食物变得比其实际的味道更甜、更咸或更辣。例如,肥鸭餐厅利用胶囊烹饪法,通过视觉错觉使食物的尺寸看起来比实际上大,由此减少了多种菜肴的含盐量。——《新共和周刊》(New Republic)
 
五种换盐瘦身法可每日减钠数千毫克
在《早安新奥尔良》节目的这段视频中,“茉莉瘦身法”这个片段为大家介绍了几种简单的钠元素替代品。例如常见的意面酱,每份的含钠量超过600毫克。大家可以改用Sal & Judy牌等心脏健康意面酱,如此可减钠77%。我们还可以将咸脆饼干换成玉米粉薄烙饼,这样也可以减少很多钠。Rold Gold牌的食品(每份含钠490毫克)可以换成Simply Tostitos牌蓝包或黄包的玉米粉薄烙饼,也可以用Beanitos Restaurant Style牌的脆片食品代替,减钠量可达89%。——新奥尔良WNGO ABC台(WGNO ABC New Orleans)
 
 
请注意:
本简讯英文版由美国疾病预防控制中心发布,中文版由骄阳翻译公司翻译,如有歧义,请以英文版本为准。 
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Salt in the News captures news articles (or headlines) related to sodium and sodium reduction that have been published since the last edition, about every 2 weeks. Content includes Industry News, Government News, State/Local News, International News, New Studies and Research, and more. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of sodium-related topics in the media.
 
 
February 13–26, 2016
 

New York City Can Require Sodium Warnings, Judge Rules
Saying “information is power,” a New York State Supreme Court judge recently upheld a measure in New York City requiring restaurants with 15 or more locations nationwide to warn consumers about high levels of sodium in foods. The National Restaurant Association had sought a preliminary injunction to halt the measure, arguing that the board’s decision lacked legislative guidance or comment from affected businesses, the targets of the sodium rule were arbitrary and capricious, and the measure would cause “irreparable harm” to chain restaurants by singling out their businesses rather than including all restaurants in the city. Thomas Merrill, the general counsel at the city’s health department, sought to contrast the requirement with the sugary drink ban proposed by former Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg: “Warnings can be followed,” Mr. Merrill argued, “or they cannot be followed.” Some chains in the city, including Subway, T.G.I. Friday’s, Applebee’s, and the Regal Entertainment Group, have already begun abiding by the sodium warning rule. – New York Times
 

What America Can Learn from the United Kingdom’s Massive Sodium Experiment
In 2003, a U.K. government–commissioned report on salt concluded that high salt consumption in the British population was contributing to cardiovascular disease and stroke. Individual recommendations to people with hypertension would not get the job done, the report said. The United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency responded with a two-pronged salt-reduction plan: first, increasing public awareness, and second, critically, working with the processed food industry to reduce salt in their products. At baseline in 2003, Britons’ salt intake averaged 9.5 grams per day; by 2011, consumption had dropped 15%, to 8.1 grams per day. Blood pressure dropped and stroke and heart disease mortality dropped 42% and 40%, respectively. By contrast, U.S. deaths from stroke and heart disease dropped 31% and 34%, respectively, according to CDC. Even with this kind of research, it cannot be said with absolute certainty that the salt decrease is responsible. But the compelling data from countries that have tried population-level decreases have led both the World Health Organization and the United Nations to recommend such programs as a way to fight disease. – Washington Post
 
Chinese Eating Twice the Amount of Salt Recommended
The popularity of soy sauce, processed foods, and pickled vegetables in China have contributed to average Chinese salt consumption levels at nearly twice the amount recommended by the World Health Organization, a new JAMA study recently warned amid rising incidence of high blood pressure and other chronic diseases in the country. However, the research, which included data from provinces that together contain 46% of the Chinese population, found the average dietary salt consumption of Chinese residents declined 22.2% from 11.8 grams per day in 2000 to 9.2 grams per day in 2009. In terms of direct intake from soy sauce, processed foods, and pickled vegetables, sodium intake in China in the studied years decreased only 12.3%, from 6.4 grams per day to 5.6 grams per day. – Business Standard
 
“Misleading” U.K. Child Meals List Adult Salt Limits
Parents in the United Kingdom face being misled by children’s packaged meals that contain up to 75% of a child’s daily salt limit but feature percentages on their packaging as much as two-thirds lower by using the recommended levels for adults. The standard “traffic light system” on U.K. food packaging marks food as green, amber, or red for the levels of salt, saturated fat, and sugar in the product, based on an adult’s recommended intake. But children have much lower recommended intakes of salt, meaning some children’s packaged meals marked “low” in salt in fact have “high” levels for children. – Sunday Times
 
British Chain’s Pizza Saltier Than a Burger King Whopper Meal
PizzaExpress is Britain’s saltiest restaurant chain and far outweighs the salt levels of some of the largest fast food chains, according to research by treated.com. The pizza chain’s saltiest dish was found to be the Napoletana pizza, which—at 9.6 grams of salt per serving—contains nearly three times as much sodium as a Burger King Whopper and regular fries. Italian food, street food, and pub food were the cuisines most regularly featured in the highest salt ratings. Wayne Osborne, who conducted the research for treated.com, called on restaurant chains to reveal the nutritional information of their meals in a similar way that fast food chains are mandated to do. – Eat Out Magazine
 
Too Much Salt: Over 8 Million Thais Suffer from Chronic Kidney Disease
The Thai Ministry of Public Health recently revealed that over 8 million Thais suffer from chronic kidney disease, with half of those also suffering from diabetes and high blood pressure. In advance of World Kidney Day in March, the ministry reveals Thailand ranks third among members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in terms of the number of citizens diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, just behind Malaysia and Singapore. Surasak Kantachuwessiri, president of the steering committee of World Kidney Day 2016, blamed the kidney disease cases on the high levels of sodium in Thai diets, mentioning the popularity of barbecue among Thais as an example of their preference for salty food. – Coconuts Bangkok
 
Nine Hidden Sources of Salt in India
Even when adding less salt in your food, the high sodium content in nine popular food items in India may cause damage to your heart and organs. Papads (spiced wafers) and pickles, which come as sides with a main course, are full of sodium. Add to it the oil and other mix of condiments that go into their preparation, and one spoon of pickle can contain the equivalent of a day’s worth of sodium. Most people think of bakery products as sweet, but most bake mixes contain a fair amount of sodium. Most cheese, butter, and margarine are also loaded with salt. – Health Site
 

Scientists Cannot Agree Whether Salt Is Killing Us. Here’s Why.
The inability to resolve the question of how much salt is healthy may seem puzzling, given the marvels of technology. A new International Journal of Epidemiology analysis of hundreds of papers on the topic indicates that the inability to reach a consensus stems at least partially from the fact that the two groups of scientists operate, in essence, in parallel scientific universes. The analysis revealed that scientists are more likely to cite the research that conforms to their outlook: Overall, the papers reviewed were 50% more likely to cite reports that drew a similar conclusion than to cite papers drawing a different conclusion. In addition, if a research paper was selected for one systematic review, it was more than likely not selected for another. “Our findings support a strong bias towards the status quo and the absence of a genuine scientific conversation where each side engages the other,” the researchers wrote. – Washington Post
 
Salt Intake Appears to Have Little Effect on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women
A low salt diet does not necessarily translate to stronger bones in postmenopausal women, according to a new Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism study. Looking at data on nearly 70,000 postmenopausal women followed for 11 years as part of the Women’s Health Initiative, the researchers found that salt intake was not a major factor in bone health. The new surprising results indicate the need for a large, prospective study to really parse whether salt intake is good, bad, or indifferent for women’s bones, said co-author Laura Carbone. “Low sodium intake by itself is not likely to be beneficial to your bones,” said Carbone. “We definitely don't want to go further than that and say high sodium is good for them.” – Medical Xpress
 

Altered Tastes: Can Neurogastronomy Convince Us Healthy Food Is Delicious?
Neurogastronomy is an emerging scientific field that examines how people’s sense of taste is interpreted and reinterpreted by the brain. The term was coined about a decade ago by Gordon Shepherd, a neurobiologist at Yale, whose research has shown that flavor, a complicated and little-understood concept, does not originate in what people eat but in what their minds derive from the experience. At Fat Duck—a three-starred Michelin restaurant in Bray, England, that operates along the principles of neurogastronomy—one basic approach focuses on actual changes to the composition of foods that makes them taste sweeter, saltier, or spicier than they actually are. For example, in a method called encapsulation, Fat Duck is able to present a flavor in a way that makes it seem far larger than it is—and in the process has successfully reduced the salt content of multiple dishes. – New Republic
 
Get the Skinny on Five Salt Swaps that Can Save Thousands of Milligrams of Sodium Daily
In this video from Good Morning New Orleans, this “Get the Skinny with Molly” segment provides simple sodium swaps for people’s diets. Regular pasta sauce, for example, can contain more than 600 milligrams of sodium per serving; consider switching to an alternative product like Sal & Judy’s Heart Smart Italian Sauce with 77% less sodium. Swapping out pretzels for tortilla chips can also save lots of sodium. Brands like Rold Gold (490 milligrams per serving) can easily be traded out for tortilla chips like Simply Tostitos blue or yellow corn tortilla chips or local product Beanitos Restaurant Style chips, which have 89% less sodium. – WGNO ABC New Orleans
 
 
 
 
 
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