美国疾病控制与预防中心《减盐行动》电子报第88期
发布日期:2016年04月22日 阅读次数:



 
 

《减盐资讯》汇总自上一期起最新的与钠摄入和减盐相关的新闻文章(或标题),大约每两周发布一次。内容包括:行业资讯、政府资讯、各州/地方资讯、国际资讯、新的调查和研究成果等等。目的是为了让公众对与钠相关的新闻话题有一个快速了解。
 
2016227- 311
 
/地方新闻
圣安托尼奥市厨师为菜品减盐
圣安托尼奥市(San Antonio)致力于减少当地居民的含糖饮品且进展顺利,但目前,该城市在烹饪方面又出现了新问题——盐。圣安托尼奥市的多家餐厅和食堂厨师都在关注近期颁布的《美国膳食指南》,以减少菜品中的含盐量,降低高盐导致的健康风险。Selrico服务部门的里克•阿莱曼(Rick Aleman)称:“在减钠行动的前两年,参加该行动的餐厅和食堂已减盐约14%”。阿莱曼举例称,我们在未公开的情况下降低了学前班菜品和上门送餐菜品的含盐量,但“大家根本没发现盐量减少了。”阿莱曼称,Selrico市的健康计划申请了200万美元的拨款,这样,餐饮企业就可以扩大供餐范围,进而向办公场所和医院的食堂供餐,因此Selrico的减盐行动一直非常成功。近期,他们又向市政局提出了拨款申请。——圣安托尼奥市KSAT ABC12台(KSAT ABC 12 San Antonio)。
法院准许纽约市餐厅延迟实行高钠警示标签
纽约市卫生委员会于九月份匿名通过强制性法规,要求某些连锁餐厅在菜单中标示高钠菜品,但近期,法院判决称,纽约市可暂停实行该法规。该法规及其相关罚款规定本应于3月1日起开始执行,因此,美国餐饮协会(National Restaurant Association)此前一直在寻求阻止其实施的办法,但近期,纽约州最高法院的艾琳•拉寇尔(Eileen Rakower)法官维持了原判决,并拒绝了该协会提出的初步禁令申请。2月29日,该州最高法院预审法庭的大卫•弗里德曼(David Friedman)法官却批准了该协会的请求,在高钠警示法规接受司法审查阶段,禁止强制执行该法规。法院预计将于3月18日就该问题提出意见。——《纽约时报》(New York Times)。
纽约餐厅张贴高盐警示,就餐者表示无所谓
近期,随着警示标签这一举措的实施,纽约市一些餐厅的菜单上开始出现非常不显眼的小盐罐标志,以标示高盐菜品,但这些小标志传达的信息本应强而有力。如果菜品旁边出现黑白标志,就说明该菜品含盐量高于医生建议的人体全天食盐量。但如何让就餐者注意到这些标志确是另一回事。自12月起,纽约市政府要求各连锁餐厅张贴警示标签,尽管餐饮行业仍在向法院申请延迟执行该法规,但数百家餐厅已选择自愿遵守。尽管如此,近期,纽约市多家餐厅的某些消费者在接受采访时称,他们并不会因为那些标签而改变点菜意向。——美国广播公司新闻网/美联社(ABC News/Associated Press)
制定合理的减盐计划
几年前,洛杉矶郡的公共卫生部门与美国疾控中心合作启动了一项计划,并联合发布了一系列视频,提醒人们注意隐形含盐食品及其危害。其中一段“高盐惊人真相”的视频介绍了松软干酪的问题,仅半量杯松软干酪就含有450毫克纳。不久前,关于是否应通过法律措施引导市民减少高钠饮食的问题在纽约立法系统内愈演愈烈。《国际流行病学期刊》(International Journal of Epidemiology)于近期刊登的一篇元分析中称,减少盐摄入的好处也许没有大家被告知的那么明显,而这一观点可能会让有些人认为“减盐之战”没有说服力。然而,纽约市要求餐厅在菜单中用盐罐标志标出所有含钠超过2300毫克的菜品,这一措施实在过于上纲上线。——纽约时报
 
国际新闻
盐摄入过量会增加儿童超重和肥胖风险
据《英国营养学杂志》(British Journal of Nutrition)发布的一项新研究称,在对澳大利亚儿童进行24小时的尿液排泄物水平测量后发现,澳大利亚儿童的盐摄入量越高,其超重或肥胖的风险就越高。该研究还发现,4-7岁和8-12岁儿童中,患有腹部肥胖的儿童的盐摄入量较高。研究负责人卡利•格莱姆斯(Carley Grimes)称:“我们发现,70%的澳大利亚儿童的盐摄入量高于健康饮食的建议最大摄入量,这些孩子每天平均摄入6克盐,但他们一天应该只摄入4至5克盐。”格莱姆斯还解释称,孩子们所摄入的盐主要来自他们每天吃的面包、奶酪、火腿和香肠等食物。——《医学快报》(Medical Xpress)。
通过应用程序购买低盐和无谷蛋白食品更便捷
现在,新西兰居民可以通过最新的智能手机应用程序辨别低盐和无谷蛋白食品,以便购买健康食品。最新版的FoodSwitch(替代食品)应用程序新增了过滤选项——SaltSwitch(盐替代品)。人们在购买食品时,可以通过这个过滤项得知哪些食品属于隐形含盐食品。用户可以使用智能手机上的摄像头扫描食物包装上的条码,从而迅速收到简单易懂的营养信息,该功能可在新西兰查询近3万件超市产品。人们对产品进行扫描后,选择SaltSwitch,就可以知道哪些是低盐产品,以及是否有更健康、含盐量更低的其它产品可供选择。该应用程序的研究负责人海伦•艾尔斯(Helen Eyles)称:“我们了解到,只有少数新西兰人能看懂食品营养标签。有了FoodSwitch和新增的过滤项,人们在购物时就能快速得知哪些食品是益于健康的最佳选择,从而降低人们患上心脏病、中风和癌症的风险,远离这三大健康杀手。——《医学快讯》(Medical Xpress)。
汤、奶酪、和麦片均属含盐量最高食品
英国健康监测机构——“盐与健康共同行动组织”(CASH)研究发现,英国多数常见食品仍含有较高的盐量。番茄汤罐头、切达奶酪、冷冻速食和玉米片均属含盐量最高的食品。该组织发现,近半数(47%)的超市常见汤类食品的含盐量至少与两块Domino牌奶酪番茄比萨的含盐量相同。CASH称,2010年之前,食品标准局(Food Standards Agency)监管的全国减盐计划曾取得巨大成效,但为了支持零售商和生产商建立自我调整的自愿体制,食品标准局不得不放弃了该计划。这种责任制管理包括一系列复杂的目标,且须在2017年12月前完成。因此,CASH敦促戴维•卡梅伦首相尽快设立独立的营养监管局,以挽救之前的减盐计划并对盐、饱和脂肪和糖的摄入量设定调整目标。——《卫报》(Guardian)。
牙买加民众应尽快减少盐摄入量
在世界合理用盐宣传周(WSAW)前,即2月29日至3月5日,牙买加糖尿病协会(Diabetes Association of Jamaica)敦促牙买加民众减少钠摄入量,降低至每日5克。该协会执行理事乐林•莱斯(Lurline Less)建议称,人们应学会查看食品的营养成分表并向营养学家进行咨询,“注意自己应摄入的盐量、高盐对高血压的影响以及高血压在长期生活中的并发症。”宣传周期间,牙买加糖尿病协会将进行大量血压筛查。莱斯解释称:“人们太不重视血压问题了。他们感到头疼后,才去看医生和吃药。我们要改变人们的这种思维方式。”——《牙买加观察报》(Jamaica Observer)。
波兰民众盐摄入量过高
波兰人每日盐摄入量平均在9至12克之间,尽管低于前几年的数值,但在华沙举办的某媒体大会上,多位健康专家表达了与“世界合理用盐周”(WSAW)活动一致的观点,他们称,波兰要达到健康饮食水平,还有很长的一段路要走。食品与营养研究所所长米罗斯拉夫•雅罗什(MiroslawJarosz)建议称,成人的每日盐摄入量应为5克以下,儿童和青少年的每日盐摄入量应在1.9至3.7克之间。2016年世界合理用盐周把重点放在隐性含盐上,据估算,在人们摄入的盐中,有40%至80%隐藏在他们购买的产品中。据专家称,只有四分之一的波兰消费者会查看食品的含盐量。——波兰广播电台(Radio Poland)。
隐性盐摄入亦可导致疾病与死亡
据估算,在印度,包装食品和常见食品中的隐形含盐每年导致60万人死亡,这也是印度第五大死亡原因。世界合理用盐周期间,心脏病学家发表了新的警示言论称,印度食品普遍含盐量较高,从儿童时期到青少年时期一直食用包装食品会增加心脏病患病风险。心脏病学家马努基•阿加瓦尔(Manoj Agarwal)解释称,印度民众的饮食习惯已产生巨大改变,现在,他们大量购买含盐量较高的包装食品和速食食品。营养学家苏嘉达•史蒂芬(Sujatha Stephen)称,多数印度消费者并不理解隐性含盐这一概念,也没有查看营养表的习惯。——《德干纪事报》(Deccan Chronicle)
 
其它信息
关于熟肉制品人们应了解哪些信息
半数美国民众每天吃一个三明治,但现在,很多人也许要三思而后行了,这可不只是碳水化合物的问题。如今,人们都知道熟肉制品的加工过程大多不太干净。但实际情况真的这么糟糕吗?也许吧。加工食品通常含钠量较高。《2015-2020美国膳食指南》建议每日钠摄入量不要超过2300毫克。一片2盎司的烤火鸡鸡胸肉含钠量在360至590毫克之间,但再加两片面包(240毫克)、一点儿芥末酱(125毫克),或者再加点儿蛋黄酱(85毫克),这样一个三明治的含钠量就会达到810至1040毫克之间。如果要降低钠摄入量,就要吃低钠熟肉。2盎司低钠熟肉含115毫克钠。也可以改用无添加盐的肉,这种肉每2盎司只有35毫克钠。——今日新闻网(TODAY)。
人们或需增加盐摄入量的六个理由
美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)建议的成人每日钠摄入量仅为1500毫克,该协会称,尽管《2015-2020美国膳食指南》建议成人每日钠摄入量不超过2300毫克,但多数美国民众会超过该建议量1000毫克以上。然而,文章引用《2014年新英格兰医学期刊》(2014 New England Journal of Medicine)刊登的某研究结论称,减盐并不总是对健康更有益。该研究发现,每日钠摄入量低于3000毫克(或高于6000毫克)的人的心脏病和早死的风险更大。虽然人们对合理用盐的标准仍存在争议,但该文章建议运动员、健康饮食者和易出汗者应向医生或注册营养师咨询了解自身盐摄入量是否足够。——《雅虎新闻》(Yahoo! News)。
 
请注意:
本简讯英文版由美国疾病预防控制中心发布,中文版由骄阳翻译公司翻译,如有歧义,请以英文版本为准。 
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Salt in the News captures news articles (or headlines) related to sodium and sodium reduction that have been published since the last edition, about every 2 weeks. Content includes Industry News, Government News, State/Local News, International News, New Studies and Research, and more. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of sodium-related topics in the media.
 
 
February 27–March 11, 2016
 

Cooks in San Antonio Reducing Salt in Dishes
San Antonio’s effort to reduce the amount of sugary drinks that residents consume is well underway, but now the city is taking on a new culinary culprit: salt. In restaurants and cafeterias, San Antonio cooks are taking note of the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans, reducing salt in their dishes and reducing the health risks that go with it. Participating restaurants and cafeterias have removed “about 14% in the first 2 years of sodium reduction” said Rick Aleman, of Selrico Services. Aleman said his pre-kindergarten and Meals on Wheels dishes, for example, were quietly changed: “They didn't even notice it.” He said Selrico has been so successful that the city’s health program is applying for a $2 million grant that would allow the company to expand support to cafeterias at workplaces and hospitals. The grant request recently went before City Council. – KSAT ABC 12 San Antonio
 
Judge Grants Delay of Sodium Warnings for New York City Restaurants
An appeals court recently ordered a temporary halt to New York City’s enforcement of a measure, passed unanimously by the city’s Board of Health in September, requiring some chain restaurants to post warnings on menu items with high levels of sodium. The National Restaurant Association had sought to block the rule and associated fines from taking effect on March 1, but Justice Eileen Rakower of the State Supreme Court recently upheld it and denied the association’s request for a preliminary injunction. On February 29, Justice David Friedman of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court granted the association’s request to prohibit enforcement while the measure is under judicial review. The court is expected to offer an opinion on the matter on March 18. – New York Times
 
New York Restaurants Post Salt Warnings, and Diners Shrug
As warning labels go, the small salt shaker emblems that began showing up on some New York City restaurant menus recently are fairly unobtrusive, but each is supposed to carry a powerful message. If the black and white logo appears next to a dish, it means the item contains more salt than doctors recommend that a person consume in an entire day. Getting diners to pay attention to the logos, though, is another matter. Since the city began requiring chain restaurants to post the warnings in December, hundreds have voluntarily complied, even as the industry has continued to delay enforcement of the rules through a court challenge. But some customers interviewed recently at several city restaurants said the labels were unlikely to change what they ordered. – ABC News/Associated Press
 
A Plan Worth Its Salt
A few years ago, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, in conjunction with a CDC initiative, issued a series of videos warning about hidden salt and the harm it can do. One of the “Salt Shocker” videos examined the problem of cottage cheese, a mere half-cup of which contains 450 milligrams of sodium. More recently, the question of the extent to which civic hostility should be directed toward sodium has arisen in New York’s legal system. A recent meta-analysis published in the International Journal of Epidemiology—arguing that the benefits of reducing salt intake might be less clear than people have been led to believe—may lead some to conclude that the “war on salt” is unjustified. But New York City’s measure to place salt shaker symbols next to individual menu items with at least 2,300 milligrams of sodium is far from a call to arms. – New York Times
 

Too Much Salt Leading to Risk of Overweight and Obese Children
Children in Australia who consume higher amounts of salt have a greater risk of being overweight or obese, according to a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition that measured the children’s 24-hour urine excretion levels. The study also found that the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children aged 4–7 and 8–12 years was higher in children who had a higher salt intake. “We found that 70% of Australian children are eating over the maximum amount of salt recommended for good health,” said lead researcher Carley Grimes, with children “eating on average 6 grams of salt a day… and they should be aiming to eat about 4 to 5 grams a day.” Much of the salt that children are eating is in everyday foods such as bread, cheese, ham, and sausages, Grimes noted. – Medical Xpress
 
App Makes Low Salt and Gluten-Free Shopping Easy
Low salt and gluten-free food products will be easier to identify, thanks to an updated smartphone app that helps New Zealanders shop healthy. The revised FoodSwitch app includes a new filter called SaltSwitch that enables shoppers to look out for hidden salt when they are grocery shopping. Users can scan the barcode of packaged food with their smartphone camera to receive immediate, easy-to-understand nutritional information on close to 30,000 New Zealand supermarket products. When a product is scanned, the SaltSwitch filter indicates whether the product is low in salt and whether there are healthier, lower salt options. “We know only a small number of New Zealanders read and understand food labels,” said Helen Eyles, lead researcher on the initiative. “FoodSwitch and its new filters make it simple for shoppers to identify the best options for their heath and reduce the risks of our biggest killers—heart disease, stroke and cancer.” – Medical Xpress
 
Soup, Cheese, and Cereal Among Worst Salt Offenders
Many popular foods in the United Kingdom still contain high levels of salt, with canned tomato soup, cheddar cheese, frozen meals, and cornflakes among the worst offenders, according to research by U.K. health watchdog group Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH). The group found that nearly half (47%) of popular supermarket soups contained at least as much salt per serving as two slices of Domino’s cheese and tomato pizza. CASH said significant progress made prior to 2010 under a national salt reduction program overseen by the Food Standards Agency had been sacrificed in favor of a voluntary system in which retailers and manufacturers regulate themselves. The responsibility deal involves a complex set of targets to be met by December 2017. CASH urged Prime Minister David Cameron to set up an independent agency for nutrition to rescue the previous reduction program and introduce regulated targets for salt, saturated fat, and sugar. – Guardian
 
Jamaicans Urged to Reduce Salt Intake
In advance of World Salt Awareness Week (WSAW), observed from February 29 to March 5, the Diabetes Association of Jamaica urged Jamaicans to reduce their sodium intake to 5 grams daily. People should read nutrition labels on food products to be informed and consult with a nutritionist, executive director Lurline Less advised, saying, “Be aware of the levels of salt that you should be taking in, the impact of salt on high blood pressure, and the complications of high blood pressure in the long run.” During WSAW, the association will conduct a number of blood pressure screenings. “We take blood pressure very lightly,” Less noted. “Until [people’s] heads ache they do not go and take their medication. We need to change that culture.” – Jamaica Observer
 
Polish People Consume Too Much Salt
The average Pole eats between 9 and 12 grams of salt per day. Although this is lower than it was several years ago, health experts at a press conference in Warsaw coinciding with WSAW said that Poland still has a long way to go before healthy levels are reached. An adult should consume less than 5 grams of salt a day, and children and young people between 1.9 and 3.7 grams a day, advised Mirosław Jarosz, the director of the Institute of Food and Nutrition. The focus of WSAW 2016 is hidden salt, with estimates that 40% to 80% of the salt people eat is hidden in the food they buy. Only one in four Poles checks the amount of salt in food products, according to experts. – Radio Poland
 
Death, Diseases Lurking Under Hidden Salt Intake
Hidden salt in packaged foods and in general food items is estimated to contribute to 600,000 deaths per year in India, the fifth leading cause of death. Cardiologists renewed their warnings during WSAW, saying that Indian foods are generally high in salt and that packaged foods consumed from childhood to adolescence increase the risk for heart disease. In a major shift in dietary habits, Indians are now consuming significantly more packaged foods and ready-to-eat meals with high salt content, noted cardiologist Manoj Agarwal. The concept of hidden salt is not understood by most Indian consumers, and reading labels has not become a habit, according to nutritionist Sujatha Stephen. – Deccan Chronicle
 

What People Need to Know About Deli Meats
Half of Americans eat a sandwich each day, but many may now be thinking twice—and not just about the carbs. With its processed reputation, deli meat is not making many “clean eating” lists these days. But is it really that bad? Maybe. Processed foods tend to be high in sodium, and the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend eating less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day. A 2-ounce serving of sliced roasted turkey breast contains between 360 to 590 mg of sodium—but adding two slices of bread (240 mg), some mustard (125 mg), and perhaps some mayonnaise (85 mg) means a sandwich can contain 810 to 1,040 mg of sodium. If sodium is a concern, look for low sodium deli meat, which has about 115 mg per 2-ounce serving, or try no salt added meat, which has only 35 mg per serving. – TODAY
 
Six Reasons People May Need to Consume More Salt
Although the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggest adults limit their sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily, most Americans exceed that recommendation by more than 1,000 mg, according to the American Heart Association (which recommends consuming only 1,500 mg a day). But less salt may not always be better, according to the article, which references a 2014 New England Journal of Medicine study that found that people who consumed less than 3,000 mg of sodium (or who got more than 6,000 mg) daily had an increased risk of heart problems and early death. While the salt “sweet spot” is debatable, the article recommends that people like athletes, healthy eaters, and those who sweat a lot should talk to their doctor or registered dietitian about whether they are consuming enough salt. – Yahoo! News
 
 
 
 
 
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